By shared constituents, we mean constituents that
are common to all the conjoints, in general, or to one of the child nodes,
in particular, of a given compound unit, being both the shared constituents
and compound unit at the top level.
The problem concerning shared constituents is related
to a terminologic point of view rather than a linguistic problem itself.
VISL does not conceive the term predicate, which would include the predicator
and the other constituents, if transitivity occurs (cf. grammatical conventions).
Three situations concerning shared constituents were found:
1. Shared subject(s)
As a consequence
of the grammatical conventions used by VISL, Subject, Predicate, and the
other constituents, at the clausal level, are at the same level. The problem
then arises when there are two coordinated predicates and only one and
shared subject because there is no syntactic tag for predicate. The notation
used for these cases is described in notation for underspecified function/form
in Notational and terminological guide-lines
example of shared subjects is:
(1.1.) Alice não sabia o que era um fato-macaco, mas não
teve coragem de perguntar.
The tree would, then, be:
SUBJ:prop('Alice' F S) Alice
==P:v-fin('saber' IMPF 3S IND) sabia
===SUBJ:pron-indp('o_que' <interr> M S) o_que
===P:v-fin('ser' IMPF 3S IND) era
====>N:art('um' <arti> M S) um
====H:n('fato' M S) fato-
====N<:n('macaco' M S) macaco
=CO:conj-c('mas' <co-vfin> <co-fmc>) mas
==P:v-fin('ter' PS 3S IND) teve
===H:n('coragem' F S) coragem
2. Shared adverbial(s)
of the shared adverbial(s) is tackled in the same way of the shared subject(s).
In relation to the syntactic function, there is no question
as to consider the coordination as having an underspecified syntactic function.
However, one could argue that the syntactic form of the conjoints isn't
entirely underspecified, and the syntactic form of finite clause (fcl)
could be a possible analysis, especially if one bears in mind that
in order to have a finite clause, the presence of a finite main verb is
enough, and the presence of subject is not obligatory (for instance, Chove.)
and certainly not of the adverbial.
If one might consider that in the case of the shared
adverbials, the syntactic form of finite clause might apply, as the boundaries
between the predicator and the adverbial are more loose, the same would
hardly apply to the case of the shared subject(s), where the there is a
tighter relation between the predicator and the subject, not only syntactically
(subject- verb agreement) but also semantically (thematic roles). Therefore,
and in order to be consistent, the syntactic form of the conjoints remains
underspecified as well.
3. Apposition or regular post
This is a different case from the previous
two. The underspecified notation does not apply in this case, as all the
constituents are suitably tagged.
Looking at a particular example:
E apelava ao "idealismo e ao pioneirismo" da América como antídoto
capaz de dar sentido ao seu enorme poder.
In the CG format, because the syntactic
analysis is flat, the question of the attachment is not visible. However,
when looking at the tree representation, the post nominal
da América (N<:pp) has to attach to the complement of the
preposition, which is not coordinated itself. If such was the case (E
apelava ao "idealismo e pioneirismo" da América....), a complex
Head of the complement of the preposition would have as its dependent the
prepositional phrase da América (N<:pp):
But, actually, what is coordinated is the prepositional
object (PIV:cu), being the post nominal dependent on both complements of
the preposition 'a'.
The solution for this case was to consider the constituents
discontinuous, as to allow a similar coordinated complex head and the attachment
of the dependent to it (the solution above), which had to lead to a discontinuos
P:v-fin('apelar' IMPF 1/3S IND) apelava
<sam->) a (discontinuous
====>N:art('o' <-sam> M S) o
====H:n('idealismo' M S) idealismo
===CO:conj-c('e' <co-advl>) e
=-H:prp('a' <sam->) a
====>N:art('o' <-sam> M S) o
====H:n('pioneirismo' M S) pioneirismo
(at the same level of the complex head)
===H:prp('de' <sam->) de
====>N:art('a' <-sam> F S) a
====H:prop('América' F S) América
The same solution was encountered for appositions.